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QURAN & HADITH 5 TIMES PRAYER ZAKAAT HAJJ & UMRAH ISLAMIC RULINGS / FATWAS / Q&A

 

SALAAT   OF   A    M U S L I M


The salaat is the thin line that distinguishes a Muslim from A Non-Muslim. 5 times prayer is obligatory to every Muslim. It wipes away sins and prevents shameful deeds. Allah says in the Holy Quran.

[Quran 20:132] And enjoin As-Salat
(the prayer) on your family, and be patient in offering them. We ask not of you a provision We provide for you. And the good end is for the Muttaqun (pious).

[Quran 29:45] Recite
(O Prophet Muhammad) what has been revealed to you of the Book (the Quran), and perform As-Salat (5 times prayer). Verily, As-Salat prevents from Al-Fahsha' (great sins) and Al-Munkar (disbelief) and the remembering of (you by) Allah (in front of the angels) is greater indeed. And Allah knows what you do.


Below are the types of Salat.

1. Obligatory 5 Times Salat
2. Extra Voluntary Salaat
3. Salaat during Travel
4. Salaat when in need
5. The 2 Eid Salaat
6. Salatul Janazah


THE 5 TIMES SALAAT


[Quran 4:103]  Set up Regular prayers. For such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times.

The obligatory prayers are to be offered 5 times a day. The timings and number of rakaats are mentioned below.

Type Timing No of Fardh Rakats (Obligatory) Number of Nafl/Sunnah Rakats (Voluntary)
1. Fajr Early Morning - Dusk   2 2 (Before Fardh)
2. Zuhar Noon   4 2 (before)+2 (After) or 4 (Before)+2(After)
3. Asr Late Noon   4 4 (Before Fardh)
4. Maghrib After Sunset   3 2+2 (After Fardh)
5. Isha Night   4 2 (After Fardh) + Witr (can be prayed before fajr Azan)

Bukhari Volumn 001, Book 010, Hadith Number 516.
------------------------------------------------
Narated By Abu Al-Minhal : Abu Barza said, "The Prophet used to offer the Fajr (prayer) when one could recognize the person sitting by him (after the prayer) and he used to recite between 60 to 100 Ayat (verses) of the Qur'an. He used to offer the Zuhr prayer as soon as the sun declined (at noon) and the 'Asr at a time when a man might go and return from the farthest place in Medina and find the sun still hot. (The sub-narrator forgot what was said about the Maghrib). He did not mind delaying the 'Isha prayer to one third of the night or the middle of the night."


Reward for Prayer


Narated By Abu Huraira : Allah's Apostle said, "If the people knew the reward for pronouncing the Adhan and for standing in the first row (in congregational prayers) and found no other way to get that except by drawing lots they would draw lots, and if they knew the reward of the Zuhr prayer (in the early moments of its stated time) they would race for it (go early) and if they knew the reward of 'Isha and Fajr (morning) prayers in congregation, they would come to offer them even if they had to crawl. (Bukhari 001:011:589)

Narated By Abu Said Al-Khudri : The Prophet said, "The prayer in congregation is twenty five times superior to the prayer offered by person alone." (Bukhari 001:011:619)


Preconditions

Prior to Offering Salaat, one must ensure the following Pre-Conditions.

1. He should be free from any sort of ritual impurities.
2. Should have valid wudhu.
3. Should have enough clothing that covers the private parts.


Bath

[Quran 5:6] O you who believe! when you prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or you have been in contact with women, and you find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah (God) doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that you may be grateful.

The state of ritual impurity arises when two reproductive organs are in contact with each other, or there is a discharge of semen making bath obligatory.


Aisha said, "Whenever Allah's Apostle took the bath of Janaba, he cleaned his hands and performed ablution like that for prayer and then took a bath and rubbed his hair, till he felt that the whole skin of the head had become wet, then he would pour water thrice and wash the rest of the body." 'Aisha further said, "I and Allah's Apostle used to take a bath from a single water container, from which we took water simultaneously." (Bukhari 001:005:272)


Wudhu or Ablution

1. Make Niyat (Intention) in your heart for Wudhu
2. Begin with saying "Bismillahirahmaniraheem"
3. Wash wrists 1st
4. Rinse mouth upto 3 times
5. Rinse nostrils upto 3 times
6. Wash face upto 3 times
7. Wash both hands starting from right till the elbows upto 3 times
8. Pass wet hand over head upto 3 times (Massah)
9. Wash both legs upto ankles starting from right upto 3 times.

Narated By 'Ata' bin Yasar : Ibn 'Abbas performed ablution and washed his face (in the following way): He ladled out a handful of water, rinsed his mouth and washed his nose with it by putting in water and then blowing it out. He then, took another handful (of water) and did like this (gesturing) joining both hands, and washed his face, took another handful of water and washed his right forearm. He again took another handful of water and washed his left forearm, and passed wet hands over his head and took another handful of water and poured it over his right foot (up to his ankles) and washed it thoroughly and similarly took another handful of water and washed thoroughly his left foot (up to the ankles) and said, "I saw Allah's Apostle performing ablution in this way." (Bukhari 001:004:142)

Wudhu should be repeated upon the following conditions : Allah's Apostle said, "The prayer of a person who does, Hadath (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution." (Bukhari 001:004:137)



Azan (The call to Congregational Prayers)

The azan is the call to prayer, usually loudspeakers are used in order to remind Muslims that the time of prayer is due and they should start preparing for the masjid. There is usually a gap of 15-20 minutes after the azan and the prayer. Prayer in congregation has its own advantages. It is a source of unity and strength amongst the muslims. People learn to co-operate and respect others and stand side by side while praying. The call-maker is called Muazzin.
The prayer in congregation is 25 times superior than praying alone. [Bukhari 001:011:621]

Narated By Ibn 'Umar : When the Muslims arrived at Medina, they used to assemble for the prayer, and used to guess the time for it. During those days, the practice of Adhan for the prayers had not been introduced yet. Once they discussed this problem regarding the call for prayer. Some people suggested the use of a bell like the Christians, others proposed a trumpet like the horn used by the Jews, but 'Umar was the first to suggest that a man should call (the people) for the prayer; so Allah's Apostle ordered Bilal to get up and pronounce the Adhan for prayers. [Bukhari 001:011:578]

Bukhari Volumn 001, Book 011, Hadith Number 589.
-----------------------------------------
Narated By Abu Huraira : Allah's Apostle said, "If the people knew the reward for pronouncing the Azan and for standing in the first row (in congregational prayers) and found no other way to get that except by drawing lots they would draw lots, and if they knew the reward of the Zuhr prayer (in the early moments of its stated time) they would race for it (go early) and if they knew the reward of 'Isha and Fajr (morning) prayers in congregation, they would come to offer them even if they had to crawl."

Arabic Translation Transliteration No Of Times to be repeated
الله أكبر Allahu Akbar Allah is Greatest 4
أشهد أن لا اله إلا الله Ashhadu anna La Ilaha Illa Allah I bear witness there is no God but Allah 2
أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rassol Allah I bear witness there Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah 2
حي على الصلاة Hayya Lassalah Come To Prayer 2
حي على الفلاح Hayya Lalfalaah Come Success 2
الصلاة خير من النوم ** Assalaatu Khair minannaum** Prayer is better than sleep (only for Fajr/Dawn Azan) 2
الله أكبر Allahu Akbar Allah is Greatest 2
لا إله إلا الله La Ilaha illa Allah There is no God except Allah 1
       


Abu Mahdhura said that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) taught him Adhan like this "I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah; I testify that Muhammad Is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and it should be again repeated: I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah; I testify that Muhammad Is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Come to the prayer (twice). Come to the prayer (twice). Ishaq added: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; there Is no god but Allah. (Muslim Book 004, Hadith Number 0740)


Iqamah (The Final call to Congregational Prayers)

The Iqamah differs from the Azan. It is seconds before the prayer is about to begin. After the Iqamah is pronounced the Imam immediately starts the Prayer.

Muslim Book 004, Hadith Number 1250.
------------------------------------
Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When the words of Iqama are pronounced, do not come to (prayer) running, but go with tranquillity, and pray what you are in time for, and complete (what you have missed) for when one of you is preparing for prayer he is in fact engaged in prayer.

Bukhari Volumn 001, Book 011, Hadith Number 579.
-----------------------------------------
Narated By Anas : Bilal was ordered to repeat the wording of the Adhan for prayers twice, and to pronounce the wording of the Iqamas once except "Qad-qamat-is-Salat".

Arabic Translation Transliteration No Of Times to be repeated
الله أكبر Allahu Akbar Allah is Greatest 2
أشهد أن لا اله إلا الله Ashhadu anna La Ilaha Illa Allah I bear witness there is no God but Allah 1
أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rassol Allah I bear witness there Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah 1
حي على الصلاة Hayya Lassalah Come To Prayer 1
حي على الفلاح Hayya Lalfalaah Come Success 1
قد قامت الصلاة Kadka matissalah Stand up for Prayer 2
الله أكبر Allahu Akbar Allah is Greatest 2
لا إله إلا الله La Ilaha illa Allah There is no God except Allah 1



The 5 Obligatory Prayers

1) Fajr Prayer (Dawn)

The Fajr Prayer is the 1st of the daily 5 obligatory prayers and is offered in dawn. During Ramadhan fast starts from the Fajr Azan till maghrib. It consists of 2 Fardh Rakaat. The 2 Sunnah is highly recommended before the fardh. If missed it can be offered immediately after the fardh is over or after sunrise. The Imam will pray in a loud voice.

[Quran 17:78] Perform As­Salat from mid-day till the darkness of the night
(Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib, and Isha), and recite the Quran in the early dawn (the Fajr prayer). Indeed, the recitation of the Quran in the early dawn is ever witnessed.
[Quran 51:15] As to the Righteous, they will be in the midst of Gardens and Springs
[Quran 51:16] Taking joy in the things which their Lord gives them, because, before then, they lived a good life
[Quran 51:17] They were in the habit of sleeping but little by night
[Quran 51:18] And in the hour of early dawn, they
(were found) praying for Forgiveness
  1. Allah's Apostle said, 'Whoever prays the two cool prayers ('Asr and Fajr) will go to Paradise.' [Bukhari 001:010:548]
  2. Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever could get one Rak'a (of the Fajr prayer) before sunrise, he has got the (morning) prayer and whoever could get one Rak'a of the 'Asr prayer before sunset, he has got the ('Asr) prayer." [Bukhari 001:010:553]
  3. "The Prophet forbade praying after the Fajr prayer till the sun rises and after the 'Asr prayer till the sun sets." [Bukhari 001:010:555]
  4. When the Muadh-dhin pronounced the Adhan for Fajr prayer and the dawn became evident the Prophet ordered a two Rakat light prayer (Sunna) before the Iqama of the compulsory (congregational) prayer.[Bukhari 001:011:592]
  5. The Prophet used to offer two light Rakat between the Adhan and the Iqama of the Fajr prayer.[Bukhari 001:011:593]
  6. Abu Huraira said, "I heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'The reward of a prayer in congregation is twenty five times greater than that of a prayer offered by a person alone. The angels of the night and the angels of the day gather at the time of Fajr prayer.'" Abu Huraira then added, "Recite the Holy Book if you wish, for "Indeed, the recitation of the Qur'an in the early dawn (Fajr prayer) is ever witnessed." (Quran 17:78). [Bukhari 001:011:621]
  7. Fajr Prayer is Hard for Hypocrites.
    Narated By Abu Huraira : The Prophet said, "No prayer is harder for the hypocrites than the Fajr and the 'Isha prayers and if they knew the reward for these prayers at their respective times, they would certainly present themselves (in the mosques) even if they had to c awl." The Prophet added, "Certainly I decided to order the Muazzin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had not left their houses so far for the prayer along with their houses." [Bukhari 001:011:626]
  8. Narated By Aisha : The believing women covered with their veiling sheets used to attend the Fajr prayer with Allah's Apostle, and after finishing the prayer they would return to their home and nobody could recognize them because of darkness. [Bukhari 001:010:552]


2) Zuhr Prayer (MidNoon)

The Zuhr Prayer is the 2nd of the daily 5 obligatory prayers and should be offered once the sun starts its descend at noon. It consists of 4 Fardh Rakaat's and one can pray optional Sunnat either 2 or 4 before Fardh and 2 or 4 after fardh. The Imam will pray silently.
  1. Allah's Apostle said :"and if they knew the reward of the Zuhr prayer (in the early moments of its stated time) they would race for it" [Bukhari 001:011:589]
  2. Narated By Abu Dhar : The Muadhdhin (call-maker) of the Prophet pronounced the Adhan (call) for the Zuhar prayer but the Prophet said, "Let it be cooler, let it be cooler." Or said, 'Wait, wait, because the severity of heat is from the raging of the Hell-fire. In severe hot weather, pray when it becomes (a bit) cooler and the shadows of hillocks appear." [Bukhari 001:010:511]
  3. Narated By 'Abdullah : "Once the Prophet offered five Rakat in Zuhr prayer. He was asked, "Is there an increase in the prayer?" The Prophet said, "And what is it?" They said, "You have prayed five Rakat.' So he bent his legs and performed two prostrations (of Sahu).[Bukhari 001:008:398]

3) Asr Prayer (Late Afternoon)

The Asr Prayer is the 3rd of the daily 5 obligatory prayers and should be offered when the sun is still bright. It consists of 4 fardh rakaat and the Prophet has forbidden any optional prayers between Asr and Maghrib Prayers. The Imam will pray silently.
  1. Narated By Abu Huraira : Allah's Apostle forbade the offering of two prayers:
    1. after the morning prayer till the sunrises.
    2. after the Asr prayer till the sun sets. [Bukhari 001:010:562]
  2. Narated By Aisha : Whenever the Prophet come to me after the Asr prayer, he always prayed two Rakat [Bukhari 001:010:567]
  3. Narated By Ibn 'Umar : Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever misses the 'Asr prayer (intentionally) then it is as if he lost his family and property." [Bukhari 001:010:527]
  4. Narated By Abu Al-Mahh : We were with Buraida in a battle on a cloudy day and he said, "Offer the 'Asr prayer early as the Prophet said, "Whoever leaves the 'Asr prayer, all his (good) deeds will be annulled." [Bukhari 001:010:528]

4.  Maghrib Prayer (After Sunset)

The Maghrib Prayer is the 4 rth of the daily 5 obligatory prayers and should be offered immediately after sunset. There is almost no gap between the Azan and the Iqamah. It consists of 3 rakaat's out of which 2 rakaat's are offered loudly when in congregation. After the fardh is over, one can pray 2 Sunnat and 2 Nafl voluntarily.
  1. Narated By Jabir bin 'Abdullah : The Prophet used to pray the Zuhr at mid-day, and the 'Asr at a time when the sun was still bright, the Maghrib after sunset (at its stated time) and the Isha at a variable time. Whenever he saw the people assembled (for 'Isha prayer) he would pray earlier and if the people delayed, he would delay the prayer. And they or the Prophet used to offer the Fajr Prayers when it still dark.[Bukhari 001:010:535]
  2. Narated By Salama : We used to pray the Maghrib prayer with the Prophet when the sun disappeared from the horizon. [Bukhari 001:010:536]



5. Isha Prayer (Night Prayer)

The Isha Prayer is the 5th of the daily 5 obligatory prayers and can be offered after nightfall. It consists of 4 rakaat's out of which 2 rakaat's are offered loudly when in congregation. After the fardh is over, one can pray 2 Sunnat and 2 Nafl voluntarily. Additional Witr Prayer is offered in order to make the prayer odd.
  1. Narated By Abu Musa : The Prophet said, "The people who get tremendous reward for the prayer are those who are farthest away (from the mosque) and then those who are next farthest and so on. Similarly one who waits to pray with the Imam has greater reward than one who prays and goes to bed." [Bukhari 001:011:623]
  2. Narated By Abu Barza : Allah's Apostle disliked to sleep before the Isha prayer and to talk after it. [Bukhari 001:010:543]
  3. Narated By Abu Huraira : The Prophet said, "No prayer is harder for the hypocrites than the Fajr and the 'Isha prayers and if they knew the reward for these prayers at their respective times, they would certainly present themselves (in the mosques) even if they had to c awl." The Prophet added, "Certainly I decided to order the Mu'adh-dhin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had not left their houses so far for the prayer along with their houses." [Bukhari 001:011:626]
  4. Narated By Humaid : Anas was asked, "Did Allah's Apostle wear a ring?" He said, "Yes. Once he delayed the 'Isha prayer till mid-night and after the prayer, he faced us and said, 'The people prayed and have slept and you remained in prayer as long as you waited for it.'" Anas added, "As if I were just now observing the glitter of his ring." [Bukhari 001:011:630]
  5. Witr Prayer

    Narated By Nafi' : Ibn 'Umar said, "While the Prophet was on the pulpit, a man asked him how to offer the night prayers. He replied, 'Pray two Rakat at a time and then two and then two and so on, and if you are afraid of the dawn (the approach of the time of the Fajr prayer) pray one Raka and that will be the witr for all the Rakat which you have offered." Ibn 'Umar said, "The last Rakat of the night prayer should be odd for the Prophet ordered it to be so. [Bukhari 001:008:461]

    Narated By 'Aisha : Allah's Apostle offered Witr prayer at different nights at various hours extending (from the 'Isha prayer) up to the last hour of the night. [Bukhari 002:016:110]