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25. Prophet Muhammed (SAW)

Muhammed was the final messenger from the progeny of Prophet  Ibrahim

[Quran 3:144] Muhammed is no more than an apostle: many Were the apostle that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will you then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah/God but Allah/God (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.

[Quran 33:40] Muhammed is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Apostle of Allah/God, and the Seal of the Prophets, and Allah/God has full knowledge of all things.

Allah bestowed Prophet Muhammed with the final book and named it "Al Quran" and henceforth Allah also promised mankind to safeguard it from any amendments or changes. It will exist in its original language and form till the end of this world, so that all those who wish to be rightly guided can take its help in recognizing the true purpose of life and death.

[Quran 47:2] But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and believe in the (Revelation) sent down to Muhammad - for it is the Truth from their Lord,- He will remove from them their ills and improve their condition.

> The Encyclopedia Brittanica says that "Muhammad is the most successful of all Prophets and religious personalities"
> Top 100 personalities by Michael H Hart puts Muhammed on the top, Jesus and Moses on 2nd and 3rd.

 Pre-Islamic Arabs

Prior to the advent of Islam, Arabs were a community holding less popularity. Baby girls were unwanted and used to be buried alive. Men could take as much wives as desired. Alcohol, gambling, lending money on interest was common. Preaching naked to Gods & Godesses was permitted. Although the Arabs accepted Allah as the supreme God, they preached besides Allah as many as 360 Gods and Godesses and their idols were installed inside the Holy Kaaba. Such days were quiet commonly quoted as days of Ignorance/Jahaliya.

[Quran 5:50] Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah/God?

With Islam, Muhammed transformed, refined and uplifted an entire nation, sunk low as the Arabs were, and made them the torch-bearers of civilization and learning - the world had ever witnessed.

Birth of Prophet Muhammed

Prophet Muhammed was born in Mecca (Present day Saudi Arabia) in the year 569 AD to father Abdullah and mother Amina who hailed from the noble family of Banu Hashem belonging to the Meccan clan of Quraish. That year was popularly known as the year of the elephant, due to a failed attempt by the King Abraha to completely destroy the Kaaba. His father died few weeks or months earlier of his birth, therefore his grandfather Abdul Mutallib took the responsibility of the child. According to the prevailing custom, the child was entrusted to a Bedouin foster-mother Halima, with whom he passed several years in the desert.

During the return journey from his maternal home, he lost his mother who died a sudden death. At Mecca, another bereavement awaited him, in the death of his affectionate grandfather Abdul Mutallib. Subject to such emotional hardships at the age of 8 he was left to grow in the hands of his affectionate and caring uncle Abu Talib (Father of Ali).

Muhammed earned his livelihood by serving as a shepherd and later as a merchant. As he grew up, he became to be well-known around the city for his honesty and truthfullness. Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "Al-Ameen" meaning "faithful/trustworthy" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator.

By the age of 25 A rich widow named Khadijah employed him. Delighted with his excellent character and fairness in trade she offered her hand in marriage. Despite the age gap (as she was beleived to be elder than him) Young Mohammed accepted the proposal. The union proved happy, she gave birth to 5 of Muhammed's children namely - son Qasim daughters Zaynab, Ruqaiyya, Umm Kulsum, Fatimah.

Wisdom of Muhammed Prior to Islam

A story found in Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, states about the year 605 of the Christian era, the draperies on the outer wall of the Ka'bah took fire. The building was affected and could not bear the brunt of the torrential rains that followed. The reconstruction of the Ka'bah was thereupon undertaken. Each citizen contributed according to his means, and only the gifts of honest gains were accepted. Everybody participated in the work of construction, and Muhammad's shoulders were injured in the course of transporting stones. To identify the place whence the ritual of circumambulation began, there had been set a black stone in the wall of the Kabah. dating probably from the time of Prophet Ibrahim/Abraham himself. There was rivalry among the citizens for obtaining the honour of transposing this stone in its place. When there was danger of blood being shed, somebody suggested leaving the matter to Providence, and accepting the arbitration of him who should happen to arrive there first. It chanced that Muhammad just then turned up there for work as usual. He was popularly known by the appellation of al-Amin (the honest), and everyone accepted his arbitration without hesitation. Muhammad placed a sheet of cloth on the ground, put the stone on it and asked the chiefs of all the tribes in the city to lift together the cloth. Then he himself placed the stone in its proper place, in one of the angles of the building, satisfying everyone.

The 1st Revelation

Jebel Noor at Mecca - Saudi Arabia

Tired by the idolatrous beleif's of his people, Muhammed would often retire to cave Hira in the nearby mountain Noor. It is here that he received his 1st revelation at the age of 40 from the Angel Gabriel on the night of 27th Ramadhan.

96:1] Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of your Lord and Cherisher, Who created.
[Quran 96:2] Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood.
[Quran 96:3] Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful.
[Quran 96:4] He Who taught (the use of) the pen.
[Quran 96:5] Taught man that which he knew not.

The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet Muhammed replied, "I do not know how to read.“ The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord...

Not knowing what to do, the terrified Prophet quickly returned to his wife Khadija, and asked her to cover him. Upon enquiring what had happened, she took him to her cousin Waraqa who possessed knowledge of the previous scriptures.

Khadija said to Waraqa, "Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!“ Waraqa asked, "O my nephew! What have you seen?" Allah's Apostle described whatever he had seen. Waraqa said, "This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allah had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out." Prophet Muhammed asked, "Will they drive me out?" Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, "Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility, and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly." But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while.

Command to Begin the Mission

The pause was broken after 3 years. During these 3 years, news spread far and wide about the revelation. Some believed while some cracked jokes. People started claiming that Allah/God has forsaken Muhammed and that is why the revelation had Paused Allah then revealed the following verses.

[Quran 93:3] Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor is He displeased.
[Quran 93:4] And indeed the Hereafter will be better for you than the present.
[Quran 93:5] And soon will your Lord give you so that you shall be well-pleased.

After preaching secretly for many years, Prophet Muhammed was then commanded to preach the message openly.

[Quran 74:1] O you (Prophet Muhammed) enveloped (in garments)!
[Quran 74:2] Arise and warn!
[Quran 74:3] And your Lord (Allah) magnify!
[Quran 74:4] And your garments purify!
[Quran 74:5] And keep away from Ar-Rujz (the idols)!
[Quran 74:6] And give not a thing in order to have more.
[Quran 74:7] And be patient for the sake of your Lord!

The 1st to accept Islam was his wife Khadija and his dear friend Abu Bakr (who later became the 1st caliph of Islam). As soon as his followers grew in numbers, so did the opposition.

Those who accepted Islam were soon being subjected to untold physical torture. Believers used to be stretched on burning sands, branded with hot irons, chained and imprisoned. But it did not shake even the slightest of faith. To escape the suffering, the Prophet advised many of the followers to secretly emigrate to Abbysinia (Ethiopia) whose ruler was kind to the Muslims. The Meccans pursued a failed attempt to snatch them back by sending a delegation to Abbysinia (Ethiopia). Since the prophet was in the custody of his uncle Abu Talib, nobody dared to harm him. On the other hand his other uncle Abu Lahab and his wife remained an inveterate enemy of Islam. To this day he is cursed in the Holy Quran

[Quran 111:1] Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab, and perish he!
[Quran 111:2] His wealth and his children will not benefit him!
[Quran 111:3] He will be burnt in a Fire of blazing flames!
[Quran 111:4] And his wife too, who carries wood.
[Quran 111:5] In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad (palm fibre).

Social Boycott

Seeing no end in sight the pagan leaders sent an ultimatum to the tribe of the Prophet, demanding him to be outlawed and delivered to the pagans in order to be executed. However this was not acceptable to any and soon the city decided to boycott the tribe completely. A boycott deed was prepared and it was hung at one of the walls of the Kaaba. This caused stark misery among the innocent victims consisting of children, men and women, the old and the sick and the feeble. After 3 long years, as the Prophet had predicted, the deed was eaten up by white ants. With the deed letter in fragments, Some kind hearted humans amongst the opposition decided to end the boycott.

Another calamity awaited the Prophet. Soon after the boycott ended, the 2 pillars of strength - his wife khadija and uncle Abu Talib - died. Sorrow and Grief struck the Prophet.  In order to strenghten his heart & morale Allah ordered his ascension to the heavens.

The Ascension (Miraj)

This event is know as the night journey. Allah informs us about it in the holy Quran

[Quran 17:1] Glorified be He Who took His slave (Prophet Muhammed) for a journey by night from Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Mecca) to the farthest mosque (in Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him of Our signs. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.

In a narration the Prophet described the events of ascension. 1st angels arrived and cut his heart. Then a gold tray of Belief was brought  and "my heart was washed and was filled (with Belief) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal (Buraq) which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me."  The Prophet said, "The animal's step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within the reach of the animal's sight. I was carried on it, and Gabriel set out with me till we reached the nearest heaven"

He met father Adam there and exchanged greetings. In the 2nd heaven he met Yahya (John) and Isa (Jesus), 3rd he met Yousuf (Joseph), 4th he met Idris, 5th he met Haron (Aaron), 6th he met Musa (Moses) who started weeping. Someone asked him, 'What makes you weep?' Moses said, 'I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise in greater numbers than my followers.'

On the 7th heaven he met Prophet Ibrahim/Abraham. Then he was made to ascend to Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary) Behold! Its fruits were like the jars of Hajr (a place near Medina) and its leaves were as big as the ears of elephants. Gabriel said, 'This is the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary. Behold ! There ran four rivers, two were hidden and two were visible, I asked, 'What are these two kinds of rivers, O Gabriel?' He replied,' As for the hidden rivers, they are two rivers in Paradise and the visible rivers are the Nile and the Euphrates.'

Then Al-Bait-ul-Ma'mur (the Sacred House) was shown to me and a container full of wine and another full of milk and a third full of honey were brought to me. I took the milk. Gabriel remarked, 'This is the Islamic religion which you and your followers are following.' Then the compulsary 50 prayers were enjoined by Allah to which Prophet Musa/Moses asked Muhammed to get it reduced eventually to five. [Bukhari 5:58:227]

The news of this celestial meeting led an increase in hostiliy of the pagans. He went to his maternal uncles in Taif (a city close to Mecca) with the message of Islam, but returned immediately, as the wicked people of Taif chased the Prophet out of their city pelting stones on him and wounding him.

Migration to Madina

The tradional annual pilgrimage to Kaaba brought many from far and wide. The Prophet used to pursuade them with his message. Finally the tribe of Madina who accepted Islam much before they met the prophet (they learned from the Jews and the christians that a Prophet was due to arrive in Madina), invited him to emigrate to the safe lands of Madina. He then left with his faithfull friend Abu Bakr, and after several adventures succeeded in reaching Madina in 622AD. (The islamic Hijri calendar begins with this date)

Prophet Muhammed & his friend AbuBakr took refuge in a Cave on this mountain during their migration to Madina

Establishing in the Temporary Base

The Prophet was cheerfully welcomed by the resident of Madina with everyone wishing that he be their guest. The displaced Migrants found their new brothers equally co-operative. They shared all their wealth with the Meccans happily.

The Prophet established a city state in Madina (1st of its kind). He made peace treaties with nearby tribes namely the Arabs, Jews, Christians and others. The document laid down principles of defense and foreign policy. Hardly had a year passed, the fasting for a whole month of Ramadhan was ordained by Allah.

[Quran 2:183] O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may (learn) self-restraint.

Masjid E Nabwi or The Prophet's Masjid in Madina Saudi Arabia

The Battle Of Badr

It was the 1st military encounter between the Muslims and Non-Muslims.

Not content with the expulsion of the Prophet, the Meccans decided to attack Madina with a powerful army. The Prophet summoned his followers to ready themself for the upcoming battle. The meccans outnumbered the madinans, but eventually lost the battle. Allah helped the prophet with thousands of angels.

[Quran 3:122] Remember two of your parties Meditated cowardice; but Allah/God was their protector, and in Allah/God should the faithful (Ever) put their trust.

[Quran 3:123] Allah/God had helped you at Badr, when you were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah/God, thus May you show your gratitude.

[Quran 3:124] Remember you said to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah/God should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?

[Quran 3:125] "Yea, - if you remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught.

[Quran 3:126] Allah/God made it but a message of hope for you, and an assurance to your hearts: (in any case) there is no help except from Allah/God. The Exalted, the Wise.

The Battle Of Uhud

[Quran 3:121] And (remember) when you left your household in the morning to post the believers at their stations for the battle (of Uhud). And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

[Quran 3:122] When two parties from among you were about to lose heart, but Allah was their Wali (Supporter and Protector). And in Allah should the believers put their trust.

[Quran 3:123] And Allah has already made you victorious at Badr, when you were a weak little force. So have Taqwa/Fear of Allah that you may be grateful.

Humiliated with the defeat, the Meccans returned to invade Madina again. This time the leader was Abu Sufiyan (unlce of Prophet) They prepared for a full year and marched towards the city with confidence as they outnumbered the Muslims heavily. The armies met at the slopes of Mountain Uhud - 5 miles from Madina. 3000 Non-Muslims Vs 700 Muslims.

The prophet put seventy archmen on one side of the defense line and instructed them "If you see us snatched into pieces by birds, do not leave this position of yours till I send for you. And if you see that we have defeated the enemy and trodden on them do not desert your position till I send for you". It was a wise and carefully-laid plan which revealed the genius of military leadership that Allah the Exalted had given to his Prophet.

Seeing the Muslims gaining upperhand, and assuming a swift victory, the archers made a fatal mistake. They abandoned their positions, went down the mount seeking to collect the booty. Khalid Bin Walid was a smart general amongst the Non-Muslims . He quickly took advantage of the loophole and rushed back with a surprise attack from behind killing as many as 70 Muslims. Rumour ran high that the Prophet too was killed. However it soon turned out to be false.

[Quran 3:149] O you who believe! If you obey those who disbelieve, they will send you back on your heels, and you will turn back as losers.

[Quran 3:150] Nay, Allah is your protector, and He is the best of helpers.

[Quran 3:151] We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve, because they joined others in worship with Allah, for which He sent no authority; their abode will be the Fire and how evil is the abode of the wrongdoers.

[Quran 3:152] And Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His permission; until Fashiltum and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed after He showed you what you love. Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then He made you flee from them, that He might test you. But surely, He forgave you, and Allah is Most Gracious to the believers.

[Quran 3:153] (And remember) when you ran away without even casting a side glance at anyone, and the Messenger was in your rear calling you back. There did Allah give you one distress after another by way of requital, to teach you not to grieve for that which had escaped you, nor for what struck you. And Allah is Well-Aware of all that you do.

[Quran 3:154] Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves and thought wrongly of Allah -- the thought of ignorance. They said, "Have we any part in the affair'' Say: "Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah.'' They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: "If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.'' Say: "Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death,'' but that Allah might test what is in your breasts; and to purify that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All-Knower of what is in the breasts.

[Quran 3:155] Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met, Shaytan only caused them to err because of some of what they had earned. But Allah, indeed, has forgiven them. Surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.

The misfortunes at Uhud were partly a punishment and partly a test for steadfastness. Such verses provided inspiration and hope to the Muslims, sacralizing future battles that they would experience. Rather than demoralizing the Muslims, the battle seemed to reinforce the solidarity between them. The muslim army lost many valuable and courageous fighters. Prophet's Uncle Hamza was one of them. His body was badly mutiliated.

The Battle Of Trench or Confederates (Khandaq)

The Jews of Bani Nadir (whose treachery, intrigues and disloyalty made them taste all types of humiliation and disgrace) sent a delegation to Mecca promising full support for any aggression against the Muslims.

In early 627 the Meccan army again led by Abu Sufyan fielded 4,000 foot soldiers, 300 horsemen, and 1,000-1,500 men on camels sought to attack Madina again. The Jews further bribed the northern Madina tribe of Banu Ghatafan with half their harvest. This contingent, the second largest, added a strength of about 2,000 men 300 horsemen. Total strength swelled to 10,000 Men , 600 Horses and they marched once again towards Madina in late 627.

Deeply shacken, Prophet Muhammed invited Proposals from the Muslims on defending his people. Meeting the enemy in open or waiting to fight them in the city, both seemed fatal. Salman - the persian, suggested a new but effective strategy ie. digging deep trenches on the outskirts of the city. Everybody including the Prophet participated in it. Madina was struck with shortage of Food since it lost all connections with the outside world. However their zeal to support the Prophet was unshaken.

A muslim reported from the battlefront:-
"During the digging there stood out a rock too immune for our spades to break up. We therefore went to see the Prophet for advice. He took the spade, and struck the rock uttering "Nn the Name of Allah, Allah is Great, the keys of Syria are mine, I swear by Allah, I can see its palaces at the moment;" on the second strike he said: "Allah is Great, Persia is mine, I swear by Allah, I can now see the white palace of Madain;" and for the third time he struck the rock, which turned into very small pieces, he said: "Allah is Great, I have been given the keys of Yemen, I swear by Allah, I can see the gates of Sana while I am in my place." This prediction further boosted the confidence of the Muslims.

[Quran 33:22] When the Believers saw the Confederate forces, they said: "This is what Allah/God and his Apostle had promised us, and Allah/God and His Apostle told us what was true." And it only added to their faith and their zeal in obedience.

The new strategem was unknown in Arabia and provided crucial support to the Muslims. 3,000 Muslims came out to encounter the surprised enemy. The enemy laid siege of Madina and tried hard to cross the trenches resulting in failure and humiliation. The provisions of the enemies were also running out. Horses and camels were dying out of hunger and wounds. For days the weather had been exceptionally cold and wet. Violent winds blew out the camp fires, taking away their source of heat. The Muslim camp, however, was sheltered by such winds. The enemies could not hold themselves any longer, and soon withdrew after a month.

[Quran 33:
9] O you who believe! Remember Allah's favor to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not. And Allah is Ever All-Seer of what you do.

[Quran 33:10] When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about Allah.

[Quran 33:11] There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking.
[Quran 33:12] And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease said: "Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion![Quran 33:13] And when a party of them said: "O people of Yathrib/Madina! There is no position for you. Therefore go back!'' And a band of them ask for permission of the Prophet saying: "Truly, our homes lie open.'' And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.

The Jews of Banu Qurayzah

This was the 1st offensive and answer to ongoing treachery.

In the midst of  the Battle of Trench, another bad news reached the Prophet. The Jews of Banu Qurayzah had deserted the peace treaty of the Prophet and rebelled, upsetting all the defense strategy of the Muslims. Since they lived inside Madina, lives of their defenseless muslim women and children were now in great danger.

Banu Qurayza immediately launched war operations against the Muslims especially the secluded garrisons that housed the women and children. Safiyah, daughter of Abdul Muttalib happened to be in a garrison with some women and children. Safiyah said: "A Jew was spotted lurking around our site, which was vulnerable to any enemy attacks because there were no men to defend it.  I took a bar of wood, went down and struck the Jew to death. This event had a far reaching effect and discouraged the Jews from conducting further attacks thinking that those sites were fortified and protected by Muslim fighters. They, however, went on providing the Meccans with supplies in token of their support against the Muslims.

After the departure of the enemies, the Prophet's immediate task was to eliminate the Jews of Banu Qurayza who posed strong risk to the Muslims. The Muslims laid siege of the strong forts of the Jews for 25 days. They eventually lost all hope and collapsed. The men were handcuffed while the women and children were isolated and confined. The Jews were given the freedon to elect an arbitrator in order to decide their fate. Saud - a former ally of the Jews- was called to intercede on their behalf. He ordered that able bodied men be exterminated, sparing women and children, and wealth be divided amongst the Muslims.

Thus they fell in the very same pit they dug for the Muslims and remained a lesson throughout history.

The Treaty of Hudaibiyah

Waisting no time shortly after the conclusion of the battle of Trench and Qurayzah, the Prophet began to dispatch punitive expeditions to force the aggressive tribes and rebellious Arabs to come to peaceful terms with the rising state of Islam. One of the  expeditions involved the tribe of Bani Al Mustaliq. Although the battle was short, the Muslim army won large booty. Amongst the captives was Juwairiyah, daughter of Al-Harith, chief of the disbelievers. The Prophet married her and, in compensation, the Muslims had to manumit a hundred others of the enemy prisoners who embraced Islam.

It was also high time to silence the Meccans, who were continuously planning attacks over the Muslims.

In around 628AD the Prophet along with 1400 Muslims travelled unarmed to Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. The Meccans intercepted his caravan outside Mecca at Hudaibiyah. The Prophet made a clear speech to them "We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform the 'Umra. No doubt, the war has weakened Quraish (Meccans) and they have suffered great losses, so if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and the people, and if I have victory over those infidels, Quraish will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish, they will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my Cause till I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His Cause victorious"

The matter was resolved through diplomacy and a treaty was drawn up with the following conditions.

1. The Muslims shall return this time and come back next year for Umra, but they shall not stay in Mecca for more than three days.

2. They shall not come back armed but can bring with them swords only sheathed in scabbards and these shall be kept in bags.

3. War activities shall be suspended for ten years, during which both parties will live in full security and neither will raise sword against the other.

4. If anyone from Mecca goes over to Muhammad without his guardian’s permission, he should be sent back to Mecca, but should any of Muhammad’s followers return to Mecca, he shall not be sent back.

5. Whosoever wishes to join Muhammad, or enter into treaty with him, should have the liberty to do so, and likewise whosoever wishes to join Mecca, or enter into treaty with them, should be allowed to do so.

Many of the Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty and they regarded it to be humiliating to themselves, considering the behavior of the Quraish against the Prophet during the negotiations. The Prophet declared the treaty a victory and they accepted it on the conviction that Allah and His messenger know best.

The Muslims performed their rites at hudaibiyah and returned to Medina. However the treaty was dissolved after an skirmish between two tribes.

Spreading the Message

Profiting from the peace treaty the Prophet decided to send messages to the kings beyond Arabia calling them to Islam.

[Quran 3:64] Say: "O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah/God; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah/God." If then they turn back, say you "Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah/God's Will).

Invitations bearing the seal of Prophet Muhammed as a messenger of Allah was dispatched to Ethiopia, Egypt, Persia, Rome, Bahrain, Yamama, Syria & Oman. Rome,Yamama,Syria refused to follow Islam, while other's embraced peacefully. The Egyptians even sent back gifts to Prophet Muhammed. Out of them was Maria-the Copt who was married to the Prophet and gave birth to his son Ibrahim who died in childhood. The king of Persia enraged at the invitation, sent men to capture the Prophet. He was however killed by his son who embraced Islam.

The Conquest of Khyber

100 miles from Madina, the Khyber Jews were busy planning an attack on Madina. The Meccan's could not side with them this time due to the peace treaty. After returning from Hudaibiyah, the Prophet launched a surprise offensive. The Jews shut themselves in their strong Forts. One by one each Fort fell to the Muslims, except one termed as indestructible. Finally it was Ali (Prophet's cousin) who broke the resistance and Khyber finally fell to the Muslims.

The Prophet took a lenient stand, and a peace treaty was drafted. One half of the crop produce would go to the Muslims. Following this, another Jew settlement of Fidak too fell to the Muslims and contracted a similar peace treaty as Khyber. The Prophet married one of the captives Safiyah, who embraced Islam.

Saffiya is said to have informed Kinana - her husband of a dream she had in which the moon had fallen from the heavens into her lap. Kinana interpreted it as a desire to marry Muhammad and struck her, leaving a mark. This dream later on came true.

The Prophet with his companions were invited to a feast by Zainab who poisoned the food. One of the companions died as result. She pleaded that she had poisoned the meat thinking that if Muhammed was a false prophet, the world would get rid of him.

Disciplining the Bedouins

Having subdued 2 power full sides, the Prophet started preparations to discipline the 3rd Party - The Bedouins. They had taken Najd (near Riyadh) for habitation and continued in their usual practices of looting and plundering.  They had a liking for living in the wilderness dispersed in scattered spots, hence the difficulty of bringing them under control, and the futility of carrying out deterrent campaigns against them. However, the Prophet was determined to put an end to this unacceptable situation and marched to Najd with 400-700 men.  The expedition was hard but the Muslims met success. The Bedouins agreed not to fight against him and many embraced Islam.

The Umrah (Pilgrimage)

Meanwhile time arrived for Umrah. As per the Hudaibiyah treaty the prophet proceeded with 2000 men, women and children and visited the Holy Sanctity Kaaba. The Muslims performed the pilgrimage vigorously and briskly and on recommendation by the Prophet they did their best to appear strong and steadfast in their circumambulation as the polytheist Meccans had spread rumours that they were weak because the fever of Madina had snapped their strength. The Meccans meanwhile aligned on the top of  Mount watching the Muslims, tongue-tied at witnessing their strength and devotion. It was here that the Prophet's uncle Abbas gave his sister-in-law Maimuna to the Prophet in marriage.

The Battle of Mutah

Mutah lies on the borders of Syria. In end of 629AD,  A close ally of Roman Emperor Al-Ghassani killed a muslim ambassador  who was on his way to Busra. This unjustified crime shocked the Prophet and a large army of 3,000 men was dispatched to discipline the culprits. The Roman Emperor sent reinforcements to help the allies. Altogether the Muslims had to face an army of 100,000 to 200,000 men. This was also the 1st engagement against christian forces.

Khalid Bin Waleed -  a renowned Meccan General and one of the finest Generals of History - reported that the fighting was so intense, he broke almost 7 swords. He continued to engage the Romans in skirmishes, but avoided pitched battles. Seeing that the situation was hopeless, he made a super strategy. He completely changed his troop dispositions and brought forth a rearguard that he had equipped with new banners, all this was intended to give the impression that reinforcements had arrived from Madina. He also ordered his cavalry to retreat behind a hill during the night, hiding their movements, and then return during at daytime when the battle resumed, raising as much dust as they could. This also was intended to create the impression that further reinforcements were arriving.

The Romans, seeing this new strategy, believed that they were being entrapped and drawn in the heart of the desert. They stopped and consequently the Muslims managed to retreat back to Madina with the slightest losses.

The Conquest of Mecca

The Meccans violated the terms of the treaty and chose to dissolve it.  Upon this the Prophet marched with an army of 10,000 men and conquered Mecca in a bloodless manner. He, in the company of the Helpers and Emigrants, proceeded towards Kabah, the Sacred House, which is an emblem of the Oneness and Supremacy of Allah.  Some 360 idols were immediately removed from it.

[Quran 17:81] And say: "Truth has (now) arrived, and Falsehood perished: for Falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish."

And Allah further said:

[Quran 34:49] Say: "The Truth has arrived, and Falsehood neither creates anything new, nor restores anything."

He then started the usual circumambulation of the Kaaba on his ride although not in a state of Ihram . Upon completion, he called for Uthman bin Talhah and took from him the key of Kaabah and went in. There he saw images of Prophets Ibrahim and Ishmael,  throwing divination arrows. He denounced these acts of Idolators and ordered that all idols be dismantled, images and effigies deleted. He then entered the sacred hall to face the wall opposite the door and there again performed prostrations, and went around acclaiming Allah’s Greatness and Oneness. Shortly afterwards, he returned to the door-way and standing upon its elevated step, gazed in thankfulness on the thronging multitude below and delivered the following celebrated address:

"There is no god but Allah Alone. He has no associates. He made good His Promise that He held to His slave and helped him and defeated all the Confederates along. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood, or property, is under my heel, except that of the custody of Kabah and supplying of water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for anyone who is slain, even though semi-deliberately, with club or whip, for him the blood-money is very severe: a hundred camels, forty of them to be pregnant.

"O people of Quraish! (Mecca) surely Allah has abolished from you all pride of the pre-Islamic era and all conceit in your ancestry, (because) all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made out of clay."

He then recited to them the verse:

[Quran 49:13] O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other . Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah/God is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah/God has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).

He further added:

"O you people of Quraish! What do you think of the treatment that I am about to accord to you?"

They replied:

"O noble brother and son of noble brother! We expect nothing but goodness from you."

Upon this he said:

"I speak to you in the same words as Yusuf (Prophet Joseph) spoke unto his brothers:

[Quran 12:92] He said: "This day let no reproach be (cast) on you: Allah/God will forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy!

As for the door-keeping of Kabah and supplying of water to pilgrims, the Prophet ordered that these jobs remain in the hand of Uthman bin Talhah and that the key will stay with him and his descendants for ever

Every attempt was made to grant pardon to the people. Ikrimah S/O Abu Jahl, who had attacked Khalid’s detachment at the time of the entry into Mecca, was forgiven. To Wahshi, the murderer of Hamza, the Prophet’s uncle, and to Hind, who had chewed his liver, was also extended his generous clemency. The same generous treatment was accorded to Habar who had attacked the Prophet’s daughter with a spear, while on her way from Mecca to Madina, so grievously that she ultimately died of the fatal injuries.

Two chiefs of Quraish were pardoned once they had embraced Islam. They were Safwan S/O Omaiyah and Fudalah S/O Umair. The latter had attempted to assassinate the Prophet while circumambulating in the Holy Sanctuary. The Prophet’s matchless tolerance and broad-mindedness instigated by his mission as ‘A mercy to all people’, converted a terrible hypocrite into a faithful devout believer.

The Islamization of Mecca was now complete. Streams of the desert Arabians began to pour in paying full homage to the Messenger of Allah , embracing the new faith and then carrying it to different quarters for propagation.

Allah says in the Quran

[Quran 110:1] When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.
[Quran 110:2] And you see that the people enter Allah's religion in crowds.
[Quran 110:3] So, glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.

Sacred Masjid Al Haraam At Mecca in Saudi Arabia

Battle of Hunain

Despite the news of the Muslims taking over Mecca with ease, Some of the fierce, powerful proud tribes decided to fight the Muslims. They assembled near Hunain valley close to Mecca. The Prophet alongwith 12,000 combatents marched to face them. The enemy was well prepared, and launched a fierce surprised attack - showering intensive arrows . To utter dismay the Muslim army started retreating.

The Prophet turned to the right and said: "Come on, people! I am the Messenger of Allah. I am Muhammad, the son of Abdullah." Those who stoodfast by him were only few Emigrants and some of his kinsmen. The matchless bravery of the Prophet was then brought to light. The Prophet's uncle with a loud voice too started calling his men to return to the Battlefield.  Voices would grow louder and louder till a hundred of them gathered round the Prophet and resumed the fight.

Muslim battalions poured successively into the battlefield in the same manner that they had left it. The stamina of both parties was superb. Both of them stoodfast and fought fiercely. The Prophet was so eagerly and furiously watching the battle that he said:

"Now the fight has grown fierce."

Picking up a handful of earth, he hurled it at their faces while saying:

"May your faces be shameful."

Their eyes were thick with dust and the enemy began to retreat in utter confusion. The Muslims won the fight and Allah revealed the following Verse of the Quran.

[Quran 9:25] Assuredly Allah/God did help you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain: Behold! your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and you turned back in retreat.

[Quran 9:26] But Allah/God did pour His calm on the Apostle and on the Believers, and sent down forces which you saw not: He punished the Unbelievers; thus does He reward those without Faith.

[Quran 9:27] Again will Allah/God, after this, turn (in mercy) to whom He will: for Allah/God is Oft- forgiving, Most Merciful

Taif Campaign

Taif is Popularly known as the Summer Capital of Saudi Arabia

Taif (some 80Kms from Mecca) Campaign was in fact an extension of Hunain. That is because the majority of the defeated troops fortified themselves within Taif.

The Muslims laid a siege of its castles.  An intense and fierce arrow-shooting and rock-hurling left a number of Muslims wounded and twelve killed. The Prophet lifted the siege after 10-20 days.

As soon as they mounted and started moving the Prophet said:

"Say! Here we are returning, repenting, worshipping (Allah) and to our Lord we offer praise."

When the Prophet was asked to invoke Allah against Taif Inhabitants, he said:

"O Allah, guide Taif  and bring them to us as Muslims."

Allah accepted the prayer, and the people of Taif accepted Islam.

Tabuk Expedition

Map of Tabuk

Bedouin Tent in Snow - Tabuk

All domestic troubles came to an end. Muslims, eventually felt at ease and started setting up the teachings of Allah’s Laws and intensifying the Call to Islam.

Caesar — who could neither ignore the great benefit that Mutah Battle had brought to Muslims, nor could he disregard the Arab tribes expectations of independence, and their hopes of getting free from his influence and reign, nor he could ignore their alliance to the Muslims — realizing all that, Caesar was aware of the progressive danger threatening his borders, especially Syrian fronts which were neighbouring Arab lands. So he concluded that demolition of the Muslims power had grown an urgent necessity before the Muslims become too powerful to conquer, and raise troubles and unrest in the adjacent Arab territories.

Caesar mustered a huge army of the Byzantines and pro-Roman Ghassanide tribes to launch a decisive bloody battle against the Muslims. The Prophet ordered his Companions to get ready for war and sent for the Maccans and the other Arab tribes asking for their assistance.

No sooner had the Muslims heard the voice of the Prophet calling them to fight the Romans than they rushed to comply with his orders. With great speed they started getting ready for war. People from everywhere began pouring in Madina.

Allah revealed the following verse.

[Quran 9:91] There is no blame on those who are infirm, or ill, or who find no resources to spend (on the cause), if they are sincere (in duty) to Allah/God and His Apostle: no ground (of complaint) can there be against such as do right: and Allah/God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

[Quran 9:92] Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said, "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses.

On their way to Tabuk, the army of Islam passed by Al-Hijr - which was the native land of Thamud who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley. The prophet remarked.

"Do not enter the houses of those who erred themselves lest what had happened to them would afflict you, but if you had to do such a thing let it be associated with weeping."

As soon as they reached Tabuk, the Prophet said: ‘Severe wind will blow tonight, so none of you should stand up. Whoever has a camel should tie it up.’ Later on when the strong wind blew, one of the men stood up and the wind carried him away to Tai Mountain. Upon learning of the Muslims march, the Romans and their allies were so terrified that none of them dared set out to fight. On the contrary they scattered inside their territory. It brought, in itself, a good credit to the Muslim forces. The Prophet made several peace treaties with the local tribes.

The tribes allied to the Romans abandoned them and joined the Prophet. The Islamic state had therefore enlarged its borders to an extent that it now touched the Romans and their agents borders. The Muslim army returned to Madina victoriously.

Three true muslims Ka‘b bin Malik, Murara bin Ar-Rabi, and Hilal bin Omaiyah, did not join the campaign due to laziness. They were boycotted for a month until Allah resolved their issue by revealing the following Ayat.

[Quran 9:118] (He turned in mercy also) to the three who were left behind; (they felt guilty) to such a degree that the earth seemed constrained to them, for all its spaciousness, and their (very) souls seemed straitened to them,- and they perceived that there is no fleeing from Allah/God (and no refuge) but to Himself. Then He turned to them, that they might repent: for Allah/God is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

[Quran 9:119] O you who believe! Fear Allah/God and be with those who are true (in word and deed).

[Quran 9:120] It was not fitting for the people of Medina and the Bedouin Arabs of the neighborhood, to refuse to follow Allah/God's Apostle, nor to prefer their own lives to his: because nothing could they suffer or do, but was reckoned to their credit as a deed of righteousness,- whether they suffered thirst, or fatigue, or hunger, in the cause of Allah/God, or trod paths to raise the ire of the Unbelievers, or received any injury whatever from an enemy: for Allah/God suffereth not the reward to be lost of those who do good;-

[Quran 9:121] Nor could they spend anything (for the cause) - small or great- nor cut across a valley, but the deed is inscribed to their credit: that Allah/God may requite their deed with the best (possible reward).

[Quran 9:122] Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them,- that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).

The Farewell Pilgrimage & The Last Sermon

After the accomplishment of the Call, the proclamation of the Message and the establishment of a new society on the basis of ‘There is no God but Allah" the Prophet set out to Mecca - his last pilgrimage.

He addressed his last sermon to around 140,000 people in Mecca

" O people! Listen to what I say. I do not know whether I will ever meet you at this place once again after this current year.
It is unlawful for you to shed the blood of one another or take (unlawfully) the fortunes of one another. They are as unlawful, (Haram) as shedding blood on such a day as today and in such a month as this Haraam/sacred month and in such a sanctified city as this sacred city (Mecca and the surrounding areas)."

"Behold! all practices of paganism and ignorance are now under my feet. The blood-revenge of the Days of Ignorance (pre-Islamic time) are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabi‘a bin Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Sa‘d and whom Hudhail killed. Usury is forbidden, and I make a beginning by remitting the amount of interest which Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib has to receive. Verily, it is remitted entirely."

"O people! Fear Allah concerning women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by Words of Allah! It is incumbent upon them to honour their conjugal rights and, not to commit acts of impropriety which, if they do, you have authority to chastise them, yet not severely. If your wives refrain from impropriety and are faithful to you, clothe and feed them suitably."

"Verily, I have left amongst you the Quran and the Sunnah (Traditions) of His Messenger which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray." [Sahih Muslim]

"O people, I am not succeeded by a Prophet and you are not succeeded by any nation. So I recommend you to worship your Lord, to pray the five prayers, to fast Ramadan and to offer the Zakat (obligatory charity) of your provision willingly. I recommend you to do the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of your Lord and to obey those who are in charge of you then you will be awarded to enter the Paradise of your Lord."

"And if you were asked about me, what wanted you to say?"

They replied:

"We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and discharged your ministry."

He then raised his forefinger skywards and then moved it down towards people while saying:

"O Allah, Bear witness."

He said that phrase thrice. [Sahih Muslim]

The one who repeated the Prophet’s statements loudly at Arafat was Rabia bin Omaiyah.

As soon as the Prophet had accomplished delivering the speech, Allah revealed the following verse.

[Quran 5:3] "This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion."

The prophet later died in Madina and was buried in the house of his wife Ayesha.